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                              Resuscitation  復蘇術
                              Assessment  評估
                              Assess the client's unresponsiveness by shaking the client and shouting, "Are you OK?"  搖病人或呼叫病人,評估病人反應程度。
                              Implementation  實施
                              1. Activate the emergency medical services according to hospital policy and procedure  根據醫院規定和操作程序起動急診治療。
                              2. Observe for chest movement; listen and feel for breaths.  觀察胸部有無運動,聽、感覺病人呼吸。
                              3. If client is breathing and no trauma is present, place client in the recovery position.  如病人有呼吸、無外傷,將病人置于恢復位。
                              4. If no respirations are detected, call for assistance.  如無呼吸,尋求協助。
                              5. Place victim on hard surface, such as floor or ground, or use the backboard found on the resuscitation cart or the headboard of the hospital bed. If the client must be moved to the supine position, use the log-rolling technique to maintain spinal integrity.  將患者置于硬面上,如地板或地面,或采用救護車上的底板或病床床頭板。如需將病人移至仰臥位,可采用滾木手法以保持脊柱完整。
                              6. Correctly position for resuscitative efforts.  復蘇時正確體位:
                              A. One-person rescue: face client while kneeling parallel to the client's sternum.  單人救護:面向病人,跪膝與病人胸骨平行。
                              B. Two-person rescue: one person faces client while kneeling parallel to the client's head. Second person is on the opposite side parallel to the client's sternum.  雙人救護:一人面向病人,跪膝與病人頭部平行;一人于病人另一側,與病人胸骨平行。
                              7. Open the airway.  打開氣道
                              A. If no head or neck trauma is suspected, use the head-tilt, chin-lift method.  如無頭世頸外傷,可采用側頭、抬頭舉頦法。
                              B. If head or neck trauma is suspected, use the jaw-thrust maneuver only. Grasp angles of client's lower jaw and lift with both hands, displacing the mandible forward.  如疑有頭或頸部外傷,只能采用雙手托頜法。雙手抓住病人下巴尖,抬起,按住前額后仰。
                              8. Mouth-to-mouth artificial respirations:  口對口人工呼吸
                              A. Adult:  成人
                              a. Pinch client's nose with thumb and index finger and occlude mouth with rescuer's mouth or use CPR pocket mask. Attempt two slow breaths, 1 1/2 to 2 sec per breath.  用拇指和食指捏住病人鼻子,搶救者張口封住病人口唇,也可使用CPR袖珍面罩。先行兩次慢呼吸,每呼吸1.2至2秒。
                              b. The rescuer should take a breath after each ventilation.  每次人工呼吸后搶救者都應吸一口氣。
                              c. Allow the client to exhale between breaths.  兩次呼吸間應允許病人呼氣。
                              d. Continue with 12 breaths per minute.  繼續人工呼吸,每分鐘12次。
                              B. Child (1 to 8 years of age):  兒童(1-8歲)
                              a. Pinch the victim's nose tightly with thumb and forefinger. Place rescuer's mouth or CPR pocket mask over client's mouth, forming an airtight seal. Give two slow breaths, 1 to 1 1/2 sec per breath.  用手指和食指捏緊患者鼻子。搶救者用口或CPR袖珍面罩封住病人口唇,形成一個密閉氣道。先行兩次慢呼吸,每次1-1,5秒鐘。
                              b. Pause after the first breath to take a breath.  每一次呼吸后稍停,吸氣。
                              c. Continue with 20 breaths per minute.  繼續人工呼吸,每分鐘20次。
                              C. Infant:  嬰兒
                              a. Place the rescuer's mouth over the infant's nose and mouth, forming an airtight seal.  搶救者口封住患兒鼻、口,形成一密閉氣道。
                              b. Give two breaths slowly at 1 to 1 1/2 sec per breath.  行兩次慢呼吸,每呼吸1-1.5秒。
                              9. Continue with 20 breaths per minute.  繼續呼吸,每分鐘20次。
                              10. Ambu bag artificial respirations:  急救袋人式呼吸
                              All ages:  所有年齡
                              A. Connect oxygen supply tubing to Ambu bag and oxygen flowmeter. Adjust oxygen to 100% FiO2 or ordered rate.  將供氧管與急救袋和流量計相連,將氧氣調節至100%吸氧濃度分數或規定速度。
                              B. Insert oropharyngeal airway.  插入口咽導氣管。
                              C. Position the face mask of the Ambu bag over the client's mouth and nose.  將急救袋面罩置于患兒口、鼻。
                              D. Give slow breaths by squeezing the bag.  捏擠急救袋行慢呼吸。
                              E. Allow time for client to exhale.  留出病人呼氣時間。
                              11. If ventilation attempt is unsuccessful, reposition the client's head and reattempt rescue breathing again. If ventilation attempt remains unsuccessful, the airway may be obstructed by a foreign body that will need to be removed.  如人工勇氣失敗,重新放置病人頭部,再次開始搶救呼吸。如再次失敗,氣道可能有異物堵塞,需要去除異物。
                              12. Suction secretions as needed or turn client's head to the side if no trauma is suspected.  必要時吸痰或將病人頭側向一側(如無損傷)。
                              13. Check for the presence of carotid pulse in adult and child or brachial pulse in infant. Feel for 3 to 5 sec.  檢查脈搏:成人及兒童測頸動脈,嬰兒測臂動脈。3-5秒。
                              14. If no pulse, initiate chest compressions.  如無脈搏,行胸外按壓法。
                              A. Adult: Place heel of hands, one atop the other, on lower third of the sternum. Lock elbows and maintain shoulders in line with sternum.  成人:兩手相疊,手掌放于第三胸骨處。雙肘關節伸直雙肩與胸骨對齊。
                              B. Child: Place the heel of one hand on the lower half of the sternum.  兒童:將一手掌根放于下1/2胸骨處。
                              C. Infant: Place two or three fingers on the lower half of the sternum just below the level of the infant's nipples.  嬰兒:將2-3根手指放于下1/2胸骨處,嬰兒乳頭下方。
                              15. Compress chest downward to proper depth and then release. Maintain constant contact with skin.  向下按壓胸部至適當深度,放松。始終保持與皮膚接觸。
                              A. Adult: 1 1/2 to 2 inches ( 4 to 5 cm)  成人:按壓時下陷1.5至2吋(4-5 cm)
                              B. Child:1 to 1 1/2 inches (2.5 to 4 cm)  兒童:按壓時下陷1至1.5吋(2.5-4 cm)
                              C. Infant:1/2 to 1 inch (1 to 2.5 cm)  嬰兒:按壓時下陷0.5-1吋(1-2.5 cm)
                              16. Maintain correct ratio proportionate to number of rescuers:  按搶救人數保持正確速度。
                              One rescuer: 15 compressions, 2 breaths  單人:2次呼吸按壓15下
                              Two rescuers: 5 compressions, 1 breath  雙人:1次呼吸按壓5下
                              A. Adult: minimum of 80 to 100 compressions per min  成人:最少80-100次/分
                              B. Child: minimum of 100 compressions per min  兒童:最少100次/分
                              C. Infant: minimum of 100 compressions per min  嬰兒:最少100次/分
                              17. Continue artificial respiration.  繼續人工呼吸
                              18. Monitor the adequacy of the compressions during two-rescuer CPR with palpation of the carotid (adult, child) or brachial (infant) pulse during compressions.  雙人胸外按壓時捫摸頸動脈(成人或兒童)或臂動脈(嬰兒)監測按壓是否適當。
                              19. Continue CPR until the rescuer is relieved, client regains cardiopulmonary function independently, or physician directs that CPR be discontinued.  繼續行CPR,直到有人替換,或病人恢復自主心肺功能,或醫生指示中止CPR。
                              20. Use Completion Protocol.  采用標準完成程序。
                              Identify Unexpected Outcomes and Nursing Interventions  確認意外結果與護理措施。
                              Record and Report  記錄與報告
                              1. Onset of arrest.  停搏時間
                              2. Location.  部位
                              3. Actions taken.  采取的行動
                              4. Client response.  病人反應



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